A population-based multidisciplinary case-control study was conducted in Shanghai, China to investigate the reasons for the extremely low risk of prostate cancer in China and evaluate factors that might explain the recent increase in incidence in this low-risk population. The study included 237 cancer cases, 206 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 471 healthy controls randomly selected from the population. Results to date suggest that higher levels of education, a high waist-to-hip ratio (an indicator of central obesity), and a higher intake of total calories, red meat, and animal fat and protein are associated with an increased risk, while higher consumption of allium vegetables, peppers, and mushrooms is associated with reduced risk. In addition, a shorter repeat length of CAG in the androgen receptor gene and higher serum levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF- 1) are associated with an increased risk. Several genetic polymorphisms found revealed no association with disease. Other genetic, hormonal, and micronutrient factors are also being examined using serum and genomic DNA extracted from buffy coat samples.
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