Skip to main content
An official website of the United States government

Risk Factor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer

The Risk Factor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer Study aims to investigate the complex relationship between breast cancer risk factors, like mammographic density and terminal ductal lobular units (TDLU) involution, and clinical features, like breast cancer intrinsic and immune subtypes and outcomes. This study focuses on women living in China and Malaysia. Characterizing associations between breast cancer risk factors and different tumor subtypes may improve risk assessment and suggest targeted prevention strategies.

Breast cancer incidence, presentation, and outcomes vary greatly by geographic location and race; observed racial heterogeneity is likely the result of a combination of factors, including disparities in healthcare access, socioeconomic status, distinct genetic factors, and environmental exposures. Previous epidemiological studies involving populations of European descent have shown that associations between breast cancer risk and risk factors, including breast cancer susceptibility loci and reproductive risk factors, vary by tumor pathology such as tumor subtypes.

For more information, contact Rose Yang.
Integrative Tumor Epidemiology Branch – Research Areas

If you would like to reproduce some or all of this content, see Reuse of NCI Information for guidance about copyright and permissions. In the case of permitted digital reproduction, please credit the National Cancer Institute as the source and link to the original NCI product using the original product's title; e.g., “Risk Factor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.”